Brandon Rozek

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PhD Student @ RPI studying Automated Reasoning in AI and Linux Enthusiast.

Fold Not Only Reduces

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2 minute reading time

One misconception when first learning about fold is that it takes a list of elements of a certain type (List[T]) and “reduces” it to a single item of type T.

This misconception is aided by one of the most common fold examples: summing a list.

Scala Example:

List(1, 2, 3, 4, 5).foldLeft(0)((c, n) => c + n)
// Returns 15

Haskell Example:

foldl (+) 0 [1,2,3,4,5]
-- Returns 15

However, let us look more closely at the type signature of foldLeft on a list of type X.


(B -> X -> B) -> B -> [X] -> B


(id: B)(op: (B, X) => B): B

There are a few things we can note here:

  • The return type is not influenced by the list type X at all.
  • The return type must match the type of the id of the fold.
  • The operation takes two arguments, with the first type matching the id/start (B) and the second type matching the type within the list (X)

To show an example of how we don’t need to “reduce”, let’s return the elements of a list that’s greater than 5.

Scala Example:

List(5, 7, 1, 8, 9, 3).foldLeft(List.empty[Int])((c, n) => if n > 5 then c :+ n else c)
// Returns List(7, 8, 9)

Haskell Example:

l5 c n if n > 5 then c ++ [n] else c
foldl l5 [] [5, 7, 1, 8, 9, 3]
-- Returns [7,8,9]
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